Middle school mathematics teachers often do not emphasise statistics and geometry in their lesson plans for a variety of reasons. However, these are integral topics in mathematics, and using direct lecture or hands-on activities may have different effects on teacher confidence when approaching these subjects. Using qualitative and quantitative methods, anxiety was found to improve with lecture-based workshops, while confidence and effectance was found to improve with manipulatives-based workshops. The results showed some surprising and unsurprising reasons for these conclusions.
Key words: teacher education; math anxiety; manipulatives; geometry; statistics
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